“This week’s cover shows a giant crane at Haifa, the new port in Palestine. The recent expansion of Palestine's trade has necessitated the building of a harbour at Haifa, to supplement the ancient port of Jaffa.”
Nearly 300,000,000 gallons of water are consumed daily by the inhabitants of the area supplied by the Metropolitan Water Board, in whose various waterworks the water is stored, filtered and sterilized. In no sphere of human activity does the work of the engineer exert a more important influence than in the supply of water to large populations. The chemist’s work is, of course, no less important, but he and the engineer must work in the closest co-operation. A plentiful supply of pure water is the most important factor in the maintenance of a high standard of health. There can be physical fitness schemes, more hygienic living conditions, more open spaces, shorter working hours and improved places in which to work, but these would be useless without a pure water supply. The larger the supply the more difficult the problems that confront the engineer. This chapter by C Hamilton Ellis deals with London’s water supply. The Metropolitan Water Board controls an area populated by some 7,500,000 people. For each man, woman and child in the area known as “Water London” approximately forty gallons of water are used in one day. The quality of the water used in London is perfect, and the Metropolitan Water Board is famous throughout the world for its wonderful system of supply and purification. It is, however, only in comparatively recent years that London’s supply has been so excellent. Even so late as the Victorian era diseases caused by bad water were common among all classes of the community. It was in 1902 that the Metropolitan Water Board was formed; to-day this great organization controls the water supply of 537 square miles of territory, accommodating one-sixth of Britain’s total population, nearly as great a figure as the combined populations of Norway and Sweden, and nearly a million more than the total population of Australia. This chapter gives a complete description of this great organization and of the part the engineer plays and has played in the supplying of a large city with its water supply.
The story of steam coaches which were tried before railways were developed is romantic and important. It was in road transport that the earliest experiments in the propulsion of carriages by steam power first showed signs of success.
The recent expansion of Palestine’s trade has been assisted by the work of engineers who have developed large-scale harbour works at Haifa and Jaffa, where the work has included the building of sea walls and the reclamation of land. This chapter is by Harold Shepstone.
Among the most successful British express passenger locomotives are the Pacifics of the London, Midland & Scottish Railway. One of these, No. 6201 Princess Elizabeth, is illustrated in this article. This engine was built in 1933. The standard engines of this type are four-cylinder simples. The cylinders have a diameter of 16¼ in and a stroke of 28 in, actuated by Walschaerts valve-gear, with 7¼ in travel.
From the early type of windlass known to the Chinese thousands of years ago there have developed numerous types of crane, stationary and mobile, each designed for a special purpose. This chapter, by F E Dean, includes a photogravure supplement illustrating various types of modern cranes.
The Modern Crane: Photogravure
Supplement - 3
“LOADING A RAILWAY COACH weighing 30 tons and 63 feet long in the Royal Albert Dock, London. The huge floating crane belongs to the Port of London Authority. Called the London Mammoth, she is registered as a ship at Lloyd's. Propelled by twin screws, she has a gross tonnage of 1,580. She is 191 ft 7 in long and has a beam of 75 ft 3 in.”
The Modern Crane: Photogravure
Supplement - 4
“AN OVERHEAD ELECTRIC TRAVELLING CRANE. This photograph shows an electric overhead travelling crane, with a capacity of 7 tons, in operation at the Provan Gasworks of Glasgow Corporation. The span between the centres of the rails on which the crane runs is 82 feet. The crane has a height of 84 ft 6 in and is designed for handling coke in skips or grabs.”
The Modern Crane: Photogravure
Supplement - 2
“ONE CRANE LIFTS ANOTHER. This photograph shows a giant floating crane in a shipbuilder's yard at Belfast, Northern Ireland. The crane is removing the 200-feet span of an overhead gantry crane, so that it may be inspected and overhauled.”
In the face of unparalleled difficulties, aggravated by the climate, engineers in South America have succeeded in building railways across the world’s second highest mountain range. These include the Peruvian Central Railway, in Peru, and the Transandine Railway, between the Argentine and Chile. One of the most formidable challenges to the engineer has come from the Andes. The engineer has not yet conquered the Andes. He has triumphed here and there, often at the cost of valuable lives. For years men have been trying to force a way over the mountains. The Incas of Peru knew their way by passes, and built narrow tracks through the great Andine valleys, spanning the gorges with primitive suspension bridges woven out of osiers. The Incas were the forerunners of the engineers who first penetrated the Andes in the nineteenth century with the primitive but (in such a country) invaluable pack mule and surveying instruments. Then followed the railroads and bridges. The engineer, when he challenges the forces of Nature, must always have courage; but never did he need that courage more than in his battle with the Andes. As if Nature has resented man’s intrusion, tragedy has stalked the engineer’s efforts to conquer the mountains of Peru. Even when the engineers have seemingly triumphed, their work has not been completed. Nature was waited and then, quickly and terribly, she has swooped down, seeming to take a perverse joy in destroying work that has cost so much in life and labour. The story of man’s trials and triumphs in his onslaught on the Andes is told by C Hamilton Ellis. The chapter is concluded in part 9.